Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy is the standard procedure for evaluating the presence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer (PCa). The microarchitecture of each biopsied tissue is assigned a Gleason score, a highly prognostic architecture-based grading system for PCa. Due to the limited sensitivity of TRUS imaging to PCa, less than 10% of the sample cores are clinically significant, yet the false negative rate could be 20% at the initial biopsies. A diagnostic modality that can assess the microarchitectures within the prostates in vivo without tissue extraction could significantly reduce the unnecessary biopsy cores and the post-procedure complications. Our previous study has shown that photoacoustic physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA) can quantify the architectural heterogeneities in the prostate. Our recently developed needle PA probe has facilitated the minimally invasive acquisition of PA signals with sufficient temporal length and narrow dynamic range in deep tissue for statistics-based PAPCA.
This study investigates the PCa diagnosis by PAPCA of the signals acquired by the needle PA probe. A total of 45 interstitial measurements were acquired (21 in normal and 24 in cancerous regions) in 10 ex vivo human prostates. A significant difference was found in the architectural heterogeneities between the normal and cancerous regions (p<0.005). Areas-under-the-curve of 0.8 has been observed for identifying PCa using the quantitative features. Quantification of the architectural changes in vivo in a transgenic mouse model of PCa is under investigation. The preliminary test has shown a significant difference between the normal and cancerous mouse prostates ex vivo (p<0.005).
Guan Xu, Shengsong Huang, Yu Qin, Jing Pan, Yingna Chen, Denglong Wu, Xueding Wang, and Qian Cheng, "Photoacoustic needle biopsy for prostate cancer diagnosis in human prostates ex vivo and mice in vivo (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10494, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2018, 104940Q (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 29, 2018; Published: 15 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2288825.5752200781001.
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