Reconstruction of photoacoustic images acquired with clinical ultrasound transducers is traditionally performed using the delay and sum (DAS) beamforming algorithm. Recently, the delay multiply and sum (DMAS) beamforming algorithm has been shown to provide increased contrast, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and resolution in PA imaging. The main reason for the continued use of DAS beamforming in photoacoustics is its linearity in reconstructing the PA signal to the initial pressure generated by the absorbed laser pulse. This is crucial for the identification of different chromophores in multispectral PA applications and DMAS has not yet been demonstrated to provide this property. Furthermore, due to its increased computational complexity, DMAS has not yet been shown to work in real time.
We present an open-source real-time variant of the DMAS algorithm which ensures linearity of the reconstruction while still providing increased SNR and therefore enables use of DMAS for multispectral PA applications. This is demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The DMAS and reference DAS algorithms were integrated in the open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) and are available to the community as real-time capable GPU implementations.
Franz Sattler, Thomas Kirchner, Janek Gröhl, and Lena Maier-Hein, "Real-time delay multiply and sum beamforming for multispectral photoacoustics (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10494, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2018, 104942Q (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 31, 2018; Published: 15 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2285862.5752217108001.
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