Macrophages are essential for the regeneration of skeletal muscle after injury. It has been demonstrated that depletion of macrophages results in delay of necrotic fiber phagocytosis and decreased size of regenerated myofibers. In this work, we developed a multi-modal two-photon microscope system for in vivo study of macrophage activities in the regenerative and fibrotic healing process of injured skeletal muscles. The system is capable to image the muscles based on the second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signals simultaneously. The dynamic activities of macrophages and muscle satellite cells are recorded in different time windows post the muscle injury. Moreover, we found that infiltrating macrophages emitted strong autofluorescence in the injured skeletal muscle of mouse model, which has not been reported previously. The macrophage autofluorescence was characterized in both spectral and temporal domains. The information extracted from the autofluorescence signals may facilitate the understanding on the formation mechanisms and possible applications in biological research related to skeletal muscle regeneration.
Zhongya Qin, Yanyang Long, Qiqi Sun, Sicong He, Xuesong Li, Congping Chen, Zhenguo Wu, and Jianan Y. Qu, "In vivo two-photon imaging of macrophage activities in skeletal muscle regeneration," Proc. SPIE 10497, Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues XVI, 1049704 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 29, 2018; Published: 20 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2286834.
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