Stem cells and 'induced pluripotent stem cells' (iPS cells) attract considerable attention in medicine. So far, iPS cells which morphologically and functionally resemble embryonic stem cells have been generated by means of viruses through the reprogramming of somatic cells for research purposes. Typically, optical techniques such as light microscopy in combination with fluorescent markers are applied, sometimes accompanied with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), for the characterization and isolation of both tissue-specific stem and iPS cells. Nowadays, modern laser-based techniques such as nonlinear multiphoton microscopy and optical transfection using femtosecond lasers are used for iPS and stem cell imaging as well as for virus-free optical reprogramming.
Karsten König, Aisada Uchugonova, Hans Georg Breunig, and Ana Batista, "Two-photon FLIM imaging and femtosecond laser nano processing of IPS cells and stem cells (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10498, Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XVIII, 104980P (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 29, 2018; Published: 14 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2287125.5751630826001.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon