Neural-machine interfaces using optogenetics are of interest due to their minimal invasiveness and potential for parallel read in and read out of activity. One possible biological target for such an interface is the peripheral nerve, where axonlevel imaging or stimulation could greatly improve interfacing with artificial limbs or enable neuron/fascicle level neuromodulation in the vagus nerve. Two-photon imaging has been successful in imaging brain activity using genetically encoded calcium or voltage indicators, but in the peripheral nerve, this is severely limited by scattering and aberrations from myelin. We employ a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor and two-photon excitation guidestar to quantify optical scattering and aberrations in peripheral nerves and cortex. The sciatic and vagus nerves, and cortex from a ChAT-Cre ChR-eYFP transgenic mouse were excised and imaged directly. In peripheral nerves, defocus was the strongest aberration followed by astigmatism and coma. Peripheral nerve had orders of magnitude higher aberration compared with cortex. These results point to the potential of adaptive optics for increasing the depth of two-photon access into peripheral nerves.
Gregory L. Futia, Arjun Fontaine, Connor McCullough, Baris N. Ozbay, Nickolas M. George, John Caldwell, Diego Restrepo, Richard Weir, and Emily A. Gibson, "Measurement of wavefront aberrations in cortex and peripheral nerve using a two-photon excitation guidestar," Proc. SPIE 10502, Adaptive Optics and Wavefront Control for Biological Systems IV, 105020J (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 28, 2018; Published: 23 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2309492.
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