Developments in diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) systems have been impeded because of the catastrophic failure of laser windows. The window’s failure is caused by localized laser-induced heating of window material. This heating is believed to occur due to increases in absorption on or near the surface of the window. This increase is believed to be caused by either adsorption of carbon-based soot from the collisional gas or by the diffusion of rubidium into the bulk material. The work presented here will focus on the diffusion of Rb into the bulk window materials and will strive to identify a superior material to use as windows. The results of this research indicate that aluminum oxynitride (ALON), sapphire, MgAl2O4 (spinel), and ZrO2 are resistant to alkali-induced changes in optical properties.
Aaron Fletcher, David Turner, Steven Fairchild, Christopher Rice, and Gregory Pitz, "ToF-SIMS characterization of robust window material for use in diode pumped alkali lasers," Proc. SPIE 10513, Components and Packaging for Laser Systems IV, 105130L (Presented at SPIE LASE: January 31, 2018; Published: 12 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2286088.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon