Photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass) is a photosensitive silicate glass doped with Ce3+ where a permanent refractive index decrement is produced by UV exposure followed by thermal development. This material provides high efficiency and low losses combined with high thermal, ionizing and laser tolerance of holographic optical elements (HOEs). This is why PTR glass is widely used for holographic recording of volume Bragg gratings (trivial holograms produced by interference of two collimated beams) and phase plates operating in near UV, visible, and near IR spectral regions. It would be very beneficial though to record also complex HOEs (lenses and curved mirrors) for those spectral regions. However, PTR is not sensitive to visible or IR radiation and therefore does not allow the recording of nonplanar holograms for these regions. The present paper describes a technique for recording complex HOEs using visible radiation in Ce3+ doped PTR glass. This two-step technique includes a blank exposure to UV radiation followed by structured exposure to a visible beam. It was found that the second exposure decreases the refractive index decrement induced in the UV exposed glass after thermal development. This means that areas, which underwent double exposure, have refractive index lower than in unexposed areas but higher than in just UV exposed ones. Thus, this technique provides refractive index increment after visible irradiation of UV exposed PTR glass. Using this approach, complex holograms (curved mirrors and lenses) operating in the visible region, were recorded in PTR glass.
Fedor Kompan, Ivan Divliansky, Vadim Smirnov, and Leonid B. Glebov, "Two-step recording of visible holographic elements in photo-thermo-refractive glass," Proc. SPIE 10513, Components and Packaging for Laser Systems IV, 105130Z (Presented at SPIE LASE: February 01, 2018; Published: 20 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290310.
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