We investigated ultrafast rogue waves in fiber lasers and found three different patterns of rogue waves: single- peaks, twin-peaks, and triple-peaks. The statistics of the different patterns as a function of the pump power of the laser reveals that the probability for all rogue waves patterns increase close to the laser threshold. We developed a numerical model which prove that the ultrafast rogue waves patterns result from both the polarization mode dispersion in the fiber and the non-instantaneous nature of the saturable absorber. This discovery reveals that there are three different types of rogue waves in fiber lasers: slow, fast, and ultrafast, which relate to three different time-scales and are governed by three different sets of equations: the laser rate equations, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and the saturable absorber equations, accordingly. This discovery is highly important for analyzing rogue waves and other extreme events in fiber lasers and can lead to realizing types of rogue waves which were not possible so far such as triangular rogue waves.
Avi Klein, Shir Shahal, Gilad Masri, Hamootal Duadi, Kfir Sulimani, Ohad Lib, Hadar Steinberg, Stanislav A. Kolpakov, and Moti Fridman, "The picosecond structure of ultra-fast rogue waves," Proc. SPIE 10517, Real-time Measurements, Rogue Phenomena, and Single-Shot Applications III, 1051704 (Presented at SPIE LASE: January 29, 2018; Published: 15 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2285987.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon