Defect incorporation in AlGaN is dependent on the defect formation energy and hence on associated chemical potentials and the Fermi level. For example, the formation energy of CN in Al/GaN varies as chemical potential difference (µN- µC) and -EF (Fermi level). Here, we demonstrate a systematic point defect control by employing the defect formation energy as tool by (a) chemical potential control and (b) Fermi level control. Chemical potential control (µN and µC) with a case study of C in MOCVD GaN is reported. We derive a relationship between growth parameters, metal supersaturation (i.e. input and equilibrium partial pressures) and chemical potentials of III/N and impurity atoms demonstrating successful quantitative predictions of C incorporation as a function of growth conditions in GaN. Hence growth environment necessary for minimal C incorporation within any specified constraints may be determined and C is shown to be controlled from >1E19cm-3 to ~1E15 cm-3. Fermi level control based point defect reduction is demonstrated by modifying the Fermi level describing the probability of the defect level being occupied/unoccupied i.e. defect quasi Fermi level (DQFL). The DQFL is modified by introducing excess minority carriers (by above bandgap illumination). A predictable (and significant) reduction in compensating point defects (CN, H, VN) in (Si, Mg) doped AlGaN measured by electrical measurements, photoluminescence and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) provides experimental corroboration. Further, experiments with varying steady state minority carrier densities at constant illumination prove the role of minority carriers and DQFL in defect reduction over other influences of illumination that are kept constant.
Ramon Collazo, Pramod Reddy, Shun Washiyama, Felix Kaess, Ronny Kirste, Seiji Mita, James Tweedie, and Zlatko Sitar, "Methods for point defect reduction in AlGaN (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10532, Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, 1053209 (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 29, 2018; Published: 14 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2291937.5751536426001.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon