III-V/silicon photonic integrated circuits (ICs) promise to enable low cost and miniature optical sensors for trace-gas detection, bio-sensing and environmental monitoring. A lot of these applications can benefit from the availability of photonic ICs beyond the telecommunication wavelength range. The 2 μm wavelength range is of interest for spectroscopic detection of many important gases and blood constituents. In this contribution we will present 2 μmwavelength-range III-V/silicon photonic ICs consisting of tunable laser sources, photodetectors and silicon waveguide circuits. Silicon waveguides with a loss of ~0.5 dB/cm are obtained in a well-established silicon photonics platform. Based on the waveguides, low insertion loss (2-3 dB) and low crosstalk (25-30 dB) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) are realized for the 2.3 μm wavelength range. Active opto-electronic components are integrated on the photonic IC by the heterogeneous integration of an InP-based type-II epitaxial layer stack on silicon. III-V-on-silicon 2.3 μm range distributed feedback (DFB) lasers can operate up to 25 °C in continuous-wave regime and shows an output power of 3 mW. By varying the silicon grating pitch, a DFB laser array with broad wavelength coverage from 2.28 μm to 2.43 μm is achieved. III-V-on-silicon photodetectors with the same epitaxial layer stack exhibit a responsivity of 1.6 A/W near 2.35 μm. In addition, we also report a 2 μm range GaSb/silicon hybrid external cavity laser using a silicon photonic IC for wavelength selective feedback. A wavelength tuning over 58 nm and side mode suppression ratio better than 60 dB is demonstrated.
Ruijun Wang, Muhammad Muneeb, Anton Vasiliev, Aditya Malik, Stephan Sprengel, Gerhard Boehm, Ieva Simonyte, Augustinas Vizbaras, Kristijonas Vizbaras, Roel Baets, Markus-Christian Amann, and Gunther Roelkens, "III-V/silicon photonic integrated circuits for spectroscopic sensing in the 2um wavelength range," Proc. SPIE 10536, Smart Photonic and Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits XX, 1053603 (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 29, 2018; Published: 22 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2287380.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon