We are developing midwave infrared (mid-IR) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and interband cascade lasers (ICLs) bonded to silicon. The heterogeneous integration of mid-IR photonic devices with silicon promises to enable low-cost, compact sensing and detection capabilities that are compatible with existing silicon photonic and electronic technologies. The first Fabry-Perot QCLs on silicon were bonded to pre-patterned silicon-on-nitride-on-insulator (SONOI) substrates. Lateral tapers in the III-V mesas transferred the optical mode from the hybrid III-V/Si active region into the passive silicon waveguides, with feedback provided by reflections from both the III-V tapers and the polished passive silicon facets. Lasing was observed at 4.8 m with threshold current densities as low as 1.6 kA/cm2 when operated in pulsed mode at T = 20 ºC. The first mid-IR DFB lasers integrated on silicon employed gratings patterned into the silicon waveguides before bonding. Over 200 mW of pulsed power was generated at room temperature, and operated to 100 °C with T0 = 199 K. Threshold current densities were measured below 1 kA/cm2.The grating imposed considerable wavelength selectivity and 22 nm of thermal tuning, even though the emission was not spectrally pure. Ongoing research focuses on flip-chip bonding to improve heat sinking for continuous-wave operation, and arrayed waveguide gratings for beam combining. ICLs have also been bonded to silicon and the GaSb substrate has been chemically removed with an InAsSb etch-stop layer. Tapered ICL ridges designed for lasing in a hybrid III-V/Si mode have been processed above passive silicon waveguides patterned on SOI. A goal is to combine the power generated by arrays of QCLs and ICLs residing on the same chip into a single, high-quality output beam.
Charles D. Merritt, William W. Bewley, Chadwick L. Canedy, Chul Soo Kim, Igor Vurgaftman, Jerry R. Meyer, Alexander Spott, Jon Peters, Eric J. Stanton, Michael L. Davenport, Alfredo Torres, John E. Bowers, Jeremy D. Kirch, Luke J. Mawst, and Dan Botez, "Development of quantum and interband cascade lasers on silicon (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10536, Smart Photonic and Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits XX, 1053606 (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 29, 2018; Published: 14 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2288329.5751512420001.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon