Diamond’s nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center has been shown as a promising candidate for sensing applications and quantum computing because of its long electron spin coherence time and its ability to be found, manipulated and read out optically. An integrated photonics platform in diamond would be useful for NV-based magnetometry and quantum computing, in which NV centers are optically linked for long-range quantum entanglement due to the integration and stability provided by monolithic optical waveguides. Surface microchannels in diamond would be a great benefit for sensing applications, where NV centers could be used to probe biomolecules.
In this work, we applied femtosecond laser writing to form buried 3D optical waveguides in diamond. By engineering the geometry of the type II waveguide, we obtained single mode guiding from visible to the infrared wavelengths. Further, we demonstrate the first Bragg waveguide in bulk diamond with narrowband reflection. We show the formation of single, high quality NV centers on demand in ultrapure diamond using a single pulse from a femtosecond laser. With these building blocks in place, we fabricated an integrated quantum photonic circuit containing optical waveguides coupled to NV centers deterministically placed within the waveguide. The single NVs were excited and their emission collected by the optical waveguides, allowing easy interfacing to standard optical fibers. We also report high aspect ratio surface microchannels, which we will integrate with laser-written NVs and waveguides, paving the way for ultrasensitive, nanoscale resolution biosensors.
Shane M. Eaton, Vibhav Bharadwaj, Belen Sotillo, Argyro N. Giakoumaki, Thien Le Phu, Maria Ramos, Ottavia Jedrkiewicz, Roberto Osellame, Toney T. Fernandez, J.P Hadden, Andrea Chiappini, Maurizio Ferrari, Roberta Ramponi, Paul E. Barclay, and Patrick S. Salter, "Femtosecond laser inscribed color centers, microfluidics, and photonics in single-crystal diamond (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10536, Smart Photonic and Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits XX, 105361S (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 01, 2018; Published: 14 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2286274.5751507502001.
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