We review our recent developments of the trimming techniques for correcting the operating point of ring resonator and Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZIs). This technology has been employed to fine-tune the effective index of waveguides, and therefore the operating point of photonic devices, enabling permanent correction of optical phase error induced by fabrication variations. Large resonance wavelength shift of ring resonators was demonstrated, and the shift can be tuned via changing the laser power used for annealing. A higher accuracy trimming technique with a scanning laser was also demonstrated to fine-tune the operating point of integrated MZIs. The effective index change of the optical mode is up to 0.19 in our measurements, which is approximately an order of magnitude improvement compared to previous work, whilst retaining similar excess optical loss.
Graham T. Reed, Xia Chen, Milan M. Milosevic, Wei Cao, Callum Littlejohns, Ali Z. Khokhar, Yohann Franz, Antoine F. J. Runge, Sakellaris Mailis, David J. Thomson, and Anna C. Peacock, "Advancing silicon photonics by germanium ion implantation into silicon," Proc. SPIE 10536, Smart Photonic and Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits XX, 105361T (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 01, 2018; Published: 22 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2292199.
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