In this paper, we discuss a back-end CMOS fabrication process for the large-scale integration of 2D materials on SOI (siliconon-insulator) platform and present a complete theoretical study of the change in the effective refractive index of 2D materialsenabled silicon nitride waveguide structures. The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and liquid exfoliation fabrication methods are described for the fabrication of graphene, WS2 and MoS2 thin films. Finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) approach and the Transfer Matrix Method were used in order to mathematically describe these structures. The introduction of thin films of 2D material onto Si3N4 waveguide structures allows manipulation of the optical characteristics to a high degree of precision by varying the Fermi-level through the engineering of the number of atomically thin layers or by electrical tuning, for example. Based on the proposed tuning approach, designs of graphene, WS2 and MoS2 enabled Si3N4 micro-ring structures are presented for the visible and NIR range, which demonstrate versatility and desirable properties for a wide range of applications, such as bio-chemical sensing and optical communications.
Joaquin Faneca, Benjamin T. Hogan, E. Torres Alonso, Monica Craciun, and Anna Baldycheva, "2D materials integrated in Si3N4 photonics platform," Proc. SPIE 10537, Silicon Photonics XIII, 105370A (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 29, 2018; Published: 22 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290410.
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