This presentation will give an overview over germanium photonic devices that are monolithically integrated into a Si CMOS process and then focus on our current work on single photon detectors and Ge modulators. Due to the quasi direct bandgap behavior of Ge and its compatibility with Si CMOS technology, germanium photonic devices have been developed successfully. Ge photodetectors perform similar to III-V photodetectors and are preferred when very low dark currents are not needed. Ge modulators show promise for high speed devices with ultra-low power consumption. Ge photodetectors and modulators are already used in commercially available products, however, new applications and increased performance requirements call for better materials quality and new designs. Ge lasers have been demonstrated and more development is needed to determine the application space. These lasers are at the early stages of development and show great potential for a large number of applications.
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Monte Carlo based light propagation models to improve efficacy of biophotonics based therapeutics of hollow organs and solid tumours including photodynamic therapy and photobiomodulation (Conference Presentation)