This paper describes the low-cost, scalable fabrication of 2D metasurface LWIR broadband polarized emitter/absorber. A Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) type design consisting of dipole antenna elements is designed for resonance in the 7.5-13 μm band. Frequency-domain Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to optimize the design with ellipsometrically measured properties. The design is synthesized to be broadband by creating a multiple cavities and by hybridizing the dipole modes with phonon resonances in a germanium/silica dielectric which separates metallic elements from a continuous ground plane. While IR metasurfaces can be readily realized using direct-write nanofabrication techniques such as E-Beam Lithography, or Focus-Ion Beam milling, or two-photon lithography, these technologies are cost-prohibitive for large areas. This paper explores the Microsphere Photolithography (MPL) technique to fabricate these devices. MPL uses arrays of self-assembled microspheres as optical elements, with each sphere focusing flood illumination to a sub-wavelength photonic jet in the photoresist. Because the illumination can be controlled over larger scales (several μm resolutions) using a conventional mask, the technique facilitates very low cost hierarchical patterning with sub-400 nm feature sizes. The paper demonstrates the fabrication of metasurfaces over 15 cm2 and are measured using FTIR and imaged with a thermal camera.
Chuang Qu, Chen Zhu, and Edward C. Kinzel, "Fabrication of infrared broadband polarized emitting metasurfaces using microsphere photolithography," Proc. SPIE 10544, Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics XI, 105440C (Presented at SPIE OPTO: January 28, 2018; Published: 22 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2291195.
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