Vertical external cavity semiconductor lasers (VECSELs) have shown a promise of becoming efficient sources of high power and high beam quality coherent radiation. In order to live up to their true potential potential, the VECSELs must be thermally managed in order to avoid thermal damage as thermal lensing and filamentation causing preventing it from operating in a single mode regime. For optically pumped VECSELs optical cooling presents an elegant solution for thermal management as it does not require electrical or thermal conduction. The goal of optical refrigeration is to achieve radiation balance lasing (RBL) when the active medium is maintained at the steady uniform temperature. In this work we investigate the active medium characteritics and operating conditions that can lead to RBL in semiconductor medium and show that in order to achieve RBL the gain medium should be engineered to create the density of states that simultaneously allows gain and strong Anti-Stokes Luminescence. Such media may incorporate bandtail states, impurities or quantum dots. We provide the recepee for optimization of such bandstructure-engineered materials to achieve the lowest threshold and highest output power.
Zohreh Vafapour and Jacob B. Khurgin, "Bandgap engineering and prospects for radiation-balanced vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10550, Optical and Electronic Cooling of Solids III, 105500R (Presented at SPIE OPTO: February 01, 2018; Published: 14 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2292579.5751542934001.
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