Direct and indirect active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPI) have become the dominant technology in digital radiography and fluoroscopy, and further improvements in imaging performance are being sought through novel detector designs. Two novel multilayer x-ray detectors are proposed to improve the DQEs of existing AMFPI in R/F and CBCT applications that require high DQE and wide dynamic range. Both detectors utilize a back-irradiation (BI) geometry, and incorporate both a-Se and scintillators in their designs. The first design, the Hybrid-AMFPI is a composite direct/indirect detector that aims to improve the quantum efficiency of a-Se (with a maximum thickness of 1 mm due to carrier trapping) by adding a scintillator. The second design, the BI-SHARP-AMFPI (Back-Irradiated Scintillator HARPAMFPI), uses a High Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP) a-Se layer to detect and amplify optical photons from an x-ray scintillator. This work uses the Fujita-Lubberts-Swank (FLS) Monte Carlo (MC) framework proposed by Star-Lack et al. to investigate the potential improvements in imaging performance of these detectors and the optimal detector configuration. Simulations were carried out at RQA5 and RQA9 standard beam qualities. Both front-irradiation (FI) and BI geometries were evaluated to demonstrate the advantage of BI. Our simulations confirm that the DQE of the Hybrid AMFPI is substantially improved at low spatial frequencies compared to an otherwise identical direct AMFPI. Additionally, the role of gain matching of direct and indirect signal (a consideration unique to multilayer AMFPI) is investigated in the imaging performance of both the Hybrid and BI-SHARP-AMFPI.
Scott Dow, Adrian Howansky, and Wei Zhao, "Evaluation of novel multilayer x-ray detector designs using rapid Monte Carlo simulation," Proc. SPIE 10573, Medical Imaging 2018: Physics of Medical Imaging, 105730K (Presented at SPIE Medical Imaging: February 13, 2018; Published: 9 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2293944.
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