The combinations of a 60 fps kV x-ray flat panel imager, a 19 focal spot kV x-ray tube enabled by a steered electron beam, plus SART or SIRT sliding reconstruction via GPUs, allow real time 6 fps 3D-rendered digital tomosynthesis tracking of the respiratory motion of lung cancer lesions. The tube consists of a “U” shaped vacuum chamber with 19 tungsten anodes, spread uniformly over 3 sides of a 30 cm x 30 cm square, each attached to a cylindrical copper heat sink cooled by flowing water. The beam from an electron gun was steered and focused onto each of the 19 anodes in a predetermined sequence by a series of dipole, quadrupole and solenoid magnets. The imager consists of 0.194 mm pixels laid out in 1576 rows by 2048 columns, binned 4x4 to achieve 60 fps projection image operation with 16 bits dynamic range. These are intended for application with free breathing patients during ordinary linac C-arm radiotherapy with modest modifications to typical system hardware or to standard clinical treatment delivery protocols. The sliding digital tomosynthesis reconstruction is completed after every 10 projection images acquired at 60 fps, but using the last 19 such projection images for each such reconstruction at less than 8 mAs exposure per 3D rendered frame. Comparisons, to “ground truth” optical imaging and to diagnostic 4D CT (10 phase) images, are being used to determine the accuracy and limitations of the various versions of this new “19 projection image x-ray tomosynthesis fluorooscopy” motion tracking technique.
Larry Partain, Douglas Boyd, Samuel Song, Vitaliy Ziskin, Edward Seppi, Roy Rand, Austin Ely, Namho Kim, Kyle Foletta, Michael Weil, Megan Daly, John Boone, Stanley Benedict, Carlo Tognina, Edward Shapiro, Gary Okamoto, Stavros Prionas, Hai Pham, and Gikas Mageras, "Lung cancer, respiratory 3D motion imaging, with a 19 focal spot kV x-ray tube and a 60 fps flat panel imager," Proc. SPIE 10573, Medical Imaging 2018: Physics of Medical Imaging, 105730X (Presented at SPIE Medical Imaging: February 13, 2018; Published: 9 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2293184.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon