Purpose: To develop coronary phantoms that mimic patient geometry and coronary blood flow conditions for CT imaging optimization and software validation. Materials and Methods: Five patients with varying degrees of coronary artery disease underwent 320-detector row coronary CT angiography (Aquilion ONE, Canon Medical Systems). The aorta and coronary arteries were segmented using a Vitrea Workstation (Vital Images). Patient anatomy was manipulated in Autodesk Meshmixer and 3D printed in Tango+, a flexible polymer, using an Eden260V printer (Stratasys). Phantoms were connected to a pump that simulates physiologic pulsatile flow waveforms, correlated with a simulated ECG signal. Distal resistance was optimized for all three coronary vessels until physiologically accurate flow rates and pressure were observed. Phantoms underwent coronary CT Angiography (CTA) using a standard acquisition protocol and contrast mixed in the flow loop. Image data from the phantoms were input to a CT-FFR research software and compared to those derived from the clinical data. Results: All five patient-specific phantoms were successfully imaged with CTA and the images were analyzed by the CTFFR software. The phantom CT-FFR results had a mean difference of -5.4% compared to the patient CT-FFR results. Patient and phantom CT-FFR agreed for all three coronary vessels, with Pearson correlations r = 0.83, 0.68, 0.62 (LAD, LCX, RCA). Conclusions: 3D printed patient-specific phantoms can be manipulated through material properties, flow regulations, and a pulsatile waveform to create accurate flow conditions for CT based experimentation.
Lauren M. Shepard, Kelsey N. Sommer, Erin Angel, Vijay Iyer, Michael F. Wilson, Frank J. Rybicki, Dimitrios Mitsouras, Sabee Molloi, and Ciprian N. Ionita, "CT investigation of patient-specific phantoms with coronary artery disease," Proc. SPIE 10573, Medical Imaging 2018: Physics of Medical Imaging, 105731V (Presented at SPIE Medical Imaging: February 15, 2018; Published: 9 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2292918.
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