Deep-learning models are highly parameterized, causing difficulty in inference and transfer learning. We propose a layered pathway evolution method to compress a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for classification of masses in DBT while maintaining the classification accuracy. Two-stage transfer learning was used to adapt the ImageNet-trained DCNN to mammography and then to DBT. In the first-stage transfer learning, transfer learning from ImageNet trained DCNN was performed using mammography data. In the second-stage transfer learning, the mammography-trained DCNN was trained on the DBT data using feature extraction from fully connected layer, recursive feature elimination and random forest classification. The layered pathway evolution encapsulates the feature extraction to the classification stages to compress the DCNN. Genetic algorithm was used in an iterative approach with tournament selection driven by count-preserving crossover and mutation to identify the necessary nodes in each convolution layer while eliminating the redundant nodes. The DCNN was reduced by 99% in the number of parameters and 95% in mathematical operations in the convolutional layers. The lesion-based area under the receiver operating characteristic curve on an independent DBT test set from the original and the compressed network resulted in 0.88±0.05 and 0.90±0.04, respectively. The difference did not reach statistical significance. We demonstrated a DCNN compression approach without additional fine-tuning or loss of performance for classification of masses in DBT. The approach can be extended to other DCNNs and transfer learning tasks. An ensemble of these smaller and focused DCNNs has the potential to be used in multi-target transfer learning.
Ravi K. Samala, Heang-Ping Chan, Lubomir Hadjiiski, Mark A. Helvie, Caleb Richter, and Kenny Cha, "Compression of deep convolutional neural network for computer-aided diagnosis of masses in digital breast tomosynthesis," Proc. SPIE 10575, Medical Imaging 2018: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, 1057521 (Presented at SPIE Medical Imaging: February 15, 2018; Published: 27 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2293400.
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