When negative tumor margins are achieved at the time of resection, breast conserving therapy (lumpectomy followed with radiation therapy) offers patients improved cosmetic outcomes and quality of life with equivalent survival outcomes to mastectomy. However, high reoperation rates ranging 10-59% continue to challenge adoption and suggest that improved intraoperative tumor localization is a pressing need. We propose to couple an optical tracker and stereo camera system for automated monitoring of surgical instruments and non-rigid breast surface deformations. A bracket was designed to rigidly pair an optical tracker with a stereo camera, optimizing overlap volume. Utilizing both devices allowed for precise instrument tracking of multiple objects with reliable, workflow friendly tracking of dynamic breast movements. Computer vision techniques were employed to automatically track fiducials, requiring one-time initialization with bounding boxes in stereo camera images. Point based rigid registration was performed between fiducial locations triangulated from stereo camera images and fiducial locations recorded with an optically tracked stylus. We measured fiducial registration error (FRE) and target registration error (TRE) with two different stereo camera devices using a phantom breast with five fiducials. Average FREs of 2.7 ± 0.4 mm and 2.4 ± 0.6 mm with each stereo-camera device demonstrate considerable promise for this approach in monitoring the surgical field. Automated tracking was shown to reduce error when compared to manually selected fiducial locations in stereo camera image-based localization. The proposed instrumentation framework demonstrated potential for the continuous measurement of surgical instruments in relation to the dynamic deformations of a breast during lumpectomy.
Winona L. Richey, Ma Luo, Sarah E. Goodale, Logan W. Clements, Ingrid M. Meszoely, and Michael I. Miga, "A system for automatic monitoring of surgical instruments and dynamic non-rigid surface deformations in breast cancer surgery," Proc. SPIE 10576, Medical Imaging 2018: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 105761H (Presented at SPIE Medical Imaging: February 15, 2018; Published: 13 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2295221.
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