3DP idealized and patient specific vascular phantoms were manufactured using Stratasys Objet 500 Connex 3. The idealized phantoms were created using a sine wave shape, patient specific phantoms were based on CT- angiography volumes. The phantoms were coated with a hydrophilic material to mimic vascular surface properties. We tested various endovascular procedures using an Interventional Device Testing Equipment (IDTE) 2000 and measured push/pull force used to actuate endovascular devices during EIGIs.
The force needed to advance devices in neurovascular phantoms varied based on tortuosity, material and coating, ranging from -3 to 21 grams-force. Hydrophilic coating reduced maximum force from 21 to 4.8 grams-force in the same model. IDTE 2000 results of neurovascular models were compared to hand manipulation of guidewire access using a six-axis force sensor with forces ranging from -50 to 440 grams. The clot retriever tested in carotid models experienced most friction around tortuous bends ranging from -65 to -90 grams-force, with increasing rigidity of materials creating increased friction. Sine wave model forces varied from -2 to 105 grams.
3DP allows manufacturing of vascular phantoms with precise mechanical and surface properties which can be used for EIGI simulations for imaging protocol optimization and device behavior assessment.