The interpretation of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the latest semiconductor devices is not intuitive and requires comparison with computed images based on theoretical modeling and simulations. For quantitative image prediction and geometrical reconstruction of the specimen structure, the accuracy of the physical model is essential. In this paper, we review the current models of electron-solid interaction and discuss their accuracy. We perform the comparison of the simulated results with our experiments of SEM overlay of under-layer, grain imaging of copper interconnect, and hole bottom visualization by angular selective detectors, and show that our model well reproduces the experimental results. Remaining issues for quantitative simulation are also discussed, including the accuracy of the charge dynamics, treatment of beam skirt, and explosive increase in computing time.
Makoto Suzuki, Toshimasa Kameda, Ayumi Doi, Sergey Borisov, and Sergey Babin, "Modeling of electron-specimen interaction in scanning electron microscope for e-beam metrology and inspection: challenges and perspectives," Proc. SPIE 10585, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXXII, 1058517 (Presented at SPIE Advanced Lithography: February 28, 2018; Published: 13 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2301383.
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