Metal oxide nanomaterials have shown promise for use as EUV resists. Recently, significant efforts have focused on tinoxo clusters that have high absorption coefficient Sn centers and radiation sensitive organic ligands. In our studies, we have investigated a β-Keggin butyl-Sn cluster (β-NaSn13), which is charge-neutral and allows studying radiation induced chemistries without interference from counterions. We have used ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) to investigate the contrast properties of the β-NaSn13 in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and in the presence of ambient oxygen. These contrast studies indicate that ambient oxygen reduces the dose requirements for the solubility transition of the β-NaSn13 photoresists. APXPS spectra collected before and after the solubility transition shows that ambient oxygen causes a greater loss of butyl ligands from the samples and the formation of more tin oxide for larger doses, suggesting the presence of reactive oxygen species. APXPS was also used to study processes during the post exposure bake, where we compared the differences in film chemistries in ambient oxygen or in UHV. There were only very small differences in the APXPS spectra before exposure and after exposure and the post exposure bake. However, ambient oxygen resulted in some changes for unexposed regions during the post exposure bake; there was a greater ratio of tin oxide to other oxygen species (alkoxy ligands, hydroxyls) for samples annealed in oxygen. These results have significance for EUV and e-beam lithography processing parameters, as well as implications for cluster design and ligand chemistries.
Ryan T. Frederick, J. Trey Diulus, Igor Lyubinetsky, Danielle C. Hutchison, Morgan R. Olsen, May Nyman, and Gregory S. Herman, "Surface characterization of tin-based inorganic EUV resists," Proc. SPIE 10586, Advances in Patterning Materials and Processes XXXV, 1058607 (Presented at SPIE Advanced Lithography: February 26, 2018; Published: 13 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2297484.
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