We investigate the fabrication of sub-20 nm pillars by DSA lithography using PS-cylinder-forming PS-b-PMMA block copolymer (BCP). The approach is based on the removal of PMMA-matrix by either dry or wet etching to form PS pillars which act as a soft etching mask that can be further transferred to an intermediate hard one and then to the substrate. The process conditions of BCP self-assembly were optimized in terms of annealing temperature, brush layer composition and film thickness. It was demonstrated that PS/PMMA volume fractions of 50/50 in the PS-r-PMMA brush layer is the most adapted to obtain standing PS cylinders. Top-down SEM images showed a hexagonal array of PS cylinders in a PMMA matrix with a natural period of 33.5 nm (determined by Fast Fourier Transform FFT method) and CD around 15 nm. Both wet and dry etching strategies for PMMA removal were discussed. It was shown that UV exposure followed by organic solvent development is necessary to decrease pattern collapsing during PMMA removal step which is the most critical issue for pillar fabrication. PMMA removal by dry etching was shown to completely avoid this pattern collapsing. Finally, pillars etching transfer to typical organic Si containing antireflective coating and spin on carbon (SiARC/SOC) hard mask and then to the silicon substrate was demonstrated. Si pillars of 15 nm CD and 70 nm height were obtained with a straight profile shape.
A. Gharbi, P. Pimenta-Barros, O. Saouaf, G. Reynaud, L. Pain, R. Tiron, C. Navarro, C. Nicolet, I. Cayrefourcq, M. Perego, F. Pérez-Murano, E. Amat, and M. Fernández-Regúlez, "Pillars fabrication by DSA lithography: material and process options," Proc. SPIE 10586, Advances in Patterning Materials and Processes XXXV, 105860Q (Presented at SPIE Advanced Lithography: February 28, 2018; Published: 19 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2297414.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon