Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are unique materials able to undergo a thermomechanically induced, reversible phase transformation. Additionally, SMA are subject to two types of fatigue, that is structural fatigue due to cyclic loading as experienced by most materials, as well as actuation fatigue due to repeated thermally induced phase transformation. The evolution of multiple material characteristics is presented over the actuation fatigue lifetime of NiTiHf actuators, including the accumulation of irrecoverable strain, the evolution of internal voids, and the evolution of the effective modulus of the actuator. The results indicate that all three of these material characteristics are clearly interconnected and careful analysis of each of these characteristics can help to understand the evolution of the others, as well as help to understand how actuation fatigue leads to ultimate failure of the actuator.
Francis R. Phillips, Robert Wheeler, and Dimitris C. Lagoudas, "Damage evolution during actuation fatigue in shape memory alloys (SPIE Best Student Paper Award)," Proc. SPIE 10596, Behavior and Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Composites XII, 1059608 (Presented at SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring: March 05, 2018; Published: 22 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2295344.
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