Laser-based ultrasound systems are described that utilize the ultrasonic bulk-wave sensing to detect the damages and flaws in the aerospace structures. These systems apply pulse-echo or through transmission methods to detect longitudinal through-the-thickness bulk-waves. These thermoelastic waves are generated using Q-switched laser and non-contact sensing is performed using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Laser-based raster scanning is performed by either twoaxis translation stage for linear-scanning or galvanometer-based laser mirror scanner for angular-scanning. In all ultrasonic propagation imagers, the ultrasonic data is captured and processed in real-time and the ultrasonic propagation can be visualized during scanning. The scanning speed can go up to 1.8 kHz for two-axis linear translation stage based B-UPIs and 10 kHz for galvanometer-based laser mirror scanners. In contrast with the other available ultrasound systems, these systems have the advantage of high-speed, non-contact, real-time, and non-destructive inspection. In this paper, the description of all bulk-wave ultrasonic imagers (B-UPIs) are presented and their advantages are discussed. Experiments are performed with these system on various structures to proof the integrity of their results. The C-scan results produced from non-dispersive, through-the-thickness, bulk-wave detection show good agreement in detection of structural variances and damage location in all inspected structures. These results show that bulk-wave UPIs can be used for in-situ NDE of engineering structures.
Syed Haider Abbas and Jung-Ryul Lee, "Bulk-wave ultrasonic propagation imagers," Proc. SPIE 10602, Smart Structures and NDE for Industry 4.0, 106020B (Presented at SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring: March 05, 2018; Published: 27 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2297101.
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