This paper reports on the state of the art of the Quanta Image Sensor (QIS) being developed by Dartmouth. The QIS is a photon-counting image sensor. Experimental 1Mpixel devices have been implemented in a modified backside-illuminated stacked CMOS image sensor process. Without the use of avalanche multiplicative gain, the sensors have achieved room temperature average read noise of 0.22e- rms (analog readout) permitting photon counting, and over 1000fps readout at under 20mW total power dissipation including pads (single-bit digital readout).
D. Starkey, W. Deng, J. Ma, S. Masoodian, and E. R. Fossum, "Quanta imaging sensors: achieving single-photon counting without avalanche gain," Proc. SPIE 10639, Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications X, 106391Q (Presented at SPIE Defense + Security: April 18, 2018; Published: 14 May 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2309630.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon