We studied charge carrier photogeneration, cooling, carrier multiplication (CM) and charge mobility and decay in: a) isolated PbSe nanocrystals in solution, b) films of PbSe nanocrystals coupled by organic ligands, and c) 2D percolative networks of epitaxially connected PbSe nanocrystals. The studies were performed using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy with optical or terahertz/microwave conductivity detection. The effects of electronic coupling between the nanocrystals on charge mobility were characterized by frequency-resolved microwave and terahertz photoconductivity measurements. Reducing the size of ligand molecules between nanocrystals in a film strongly increases the charge mobility. Direct connection of nanocrystals in a percolative network yielded a sum of electron and hole mobilities as high as 270±10 cm2V-1s-1. We found that a high mobility is essential for multiple electron-hole pairs formed via CM to escape from recombination. The coupling between the nanocrystals was found to strongly affect the competition between cooling of hot charges by phonon emission and CM. In percolative networks of connected nanocrystals CM is much more efficient than in films with ligands between the nanocrystals. In the e networks CM occurs in a step-like fashion with threshold near the minimum photon energy of twice the band gap.
Aditya Kulkarni and Laurens D. A. Siebbeles, "Ultrafast charge cooling and carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals and superlattices ," Proc. SPIE 10673, Advances in Ultrafast Condensed Phase Physics, 1067306 (Presented at SPIE Photonics Europe: April 23, 2018; Published: 21 May 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2311452.
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