Correlated single photons provide a means to drive applications such as quantum computing and quantum communications. Correlated single photons can be generated via parametric down conversion in second–order nonlinear media or spontaneous four–wave mixing in third–order nonlinear media. In particular, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology allows for seamless integration with electronics, providing the potential for a completely on-chip solution for quantum information processing. Ultra–silicon–rich nitride platform is a backend CMOS compatible platform, that has already been used to obtain high gain optical parametric amplification, wideband supercontinuum and enhanced nonlinearity in photonic crystal waveguides due to its large nonlinearity. In this work, we demonstrate correlated photon pair generation based on spontaneous four–wave mixing using ultra-silicon-rich nitride waveguides for the application in CMOS–based optical quantum technologies.
A CW pump at a wavelength of 1555.747nm amplified using an EDFA is filtered through five wavelength division multiplexers (WDM) with a bandwidth of 1.2nm, providing 175dB suppression of EDFA induced pump sideband noise. The filtered quasi–TE pump, adjusted using a fiber polarization controller, is coupled into an ultra–silicon–rich nitride waveguide using a lensed fiber. A SiO2 cladded waveguide with a width of 550nm and height of 300nm possesses a high nonlinear parameter of 530W^-1/m with anomalous dispersion necessary for spontaneous four-wave mixing. The waveguide output is coupled into a lensed fiber and 7 cascaded WDMs are used to provide 245dB of residual pump filtration. The pump–suppressed output is spectrally separated into signal/idler part using WDMs. We refer to lower (higher) frequency photon as the signal (idler). The spontaneously generated signal and idler photons are filtered using cascaded tunable band pass filters (OTF) centered at 1571.24nm and cascaded WDMs centered at 1540.56nm, respectively. The bandwidth of the tunable OTF and WDM is 0.5nm and 1.2nm, therefore the correlated signal/idler photons are observed within the bandwidth window of 0.5nm induced by the OTF. The signal and idler photons are measured using InGaAs/InP avalanche photodetectors. The time correlation between signal and idler photons is obtained using a time interval analyzer with a detection efficiency of 20% and dead time of 15μs.The time bin is set to 81ps and the photon collection time is 240s. The coincidence peak is located ~11ns in the time–bin histogram due to the optical-path difference between the tunable OTF and WDM at respective signal and idler sides. The experimental raw coincidence counts (Hz), calculated by subtracting the accidental rate from the coincidence peak, show a quadratic increase with respect to coupled pump power. At the maximum coupled power of 5mW, the raw coincidence count is ~1Hz. We achieve a raw coincidence–to–accidental ratio (CAR) of up to 3. Therefore, we succeeded to observe correlated photon pair generation based on spontaneous four–wave mixing using the ultra–silicon–rich-nitride waveguide as a CMOS compatible platform, for future applications in quantum technologies.
Ju Won Choi, Byoung-Uk Sohn, George F. R. Chen, Doris K. T. Ng, and Dawn T. H. Tan, "Correlated photon pair generation based on spontaneous four-wave-mixing in ultra-silicon-rich nitride waveguides (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10684, Nonlinear Optics and its Applications 2018, 106840T (Presented at SPIE Photonics Europe: April 24, 2018; Published: 23 May 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2306492.5788853946001.
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