Four–wave mixing (FWM) serves as the physical basis for various nonlinear phenomena including wavelength conversion, parametric amplification, and frequency combs. FWM on a chip has been implemented using CMOS platforms, chalcogenide glasses and III–V materials. On-chip, waveguide based stimulated FWM techniques have been mostly demonstrated using a coherent pump and coherent signal to focus on broadband spectral tuning for operation in high–speed and multi–channel wavelength division multiplexing network. Though FWM using incoherent light has the potential to provide large optical conversion efficiency, such demonstrations remain largely confined to fiber–experiments and involved narrow–band signals/idlers. Furthermore, the FWM based on a pulsed laser and a broadband incoherent source has yet to be implemented. In this work, we demonstrate integrated ultra–silicon–rich nitride parametric converters that perform wavelength conversion of a broadband incoherent source with a bandwidth of ~100nm at the -20dB level. A 500fs pulsed pump is combined with an incoherent superluminescent diode (SLD) as the signal and parametric gains between 12dB – 27dB is demonstrated as well as cascaded FWM. A 500fs pulsed laser centered at 1.555μm and an incoherent SLD with a 20dB bandwidth spanning from 1.6 – 1.7μm are used as the pump and signal respectively. The pump and signal are combined with a wavelength division multiplexer and coupled into an ultra–silicon–rich nitride waveguide with 10mm length, 700nm width and 400nm height. The waveguide is designed to have a larger nonlinear parameter of 330W^-1/m while possessing anomalous dispersion of -0.92ps^2/m, necessary for phase matched parametric conversion. At a coupled peak power of 4.6W, an idler spanning from 1.43 – 1.52μm at the -20dB level is generated. At a maximum input signal power of 0.71mW, a second idler appears at the blue side of the first generated idler because of cascaded FWM induced between pump of 1.555μm and the first idler peak of 1.48μm. At a coupled peak power of 2.8W, an idler spanning from 1.46 to 1.52μm is generated. The experimental idler bandwidth agrees well with the calculation based on degenerate FWM phase–matching condition. The broadened idler powers are calculated by integrating the energy of each signal and idler with respect to wavelength to obtain optical conversion efficiencies. The integrated idler power is 3.4dBm and 13.4dBm, corresponding to idler parametric gain of 12dB and 18dB respectively at a coupled peak power of 2.8 and 4.6W, respectively. The application of the SLD signal to a supercontinuum that is generated at a coupled peak power of 26W spectrally spanning 1.1 – 1.7μm is observed to generate an idler power of 14dBm within the wavelength range of 1.18 – 1.42μm as well as an idler conversion efficiency/gain of 27dB. Therefore, we achieved broadband wavelength conversion based on stimulated FWM using a pulsed pump and broadband incoherent signal that facilitate the spectrum spanning from 100nm, sufficient to cover parts of the E– and S–bands an representing large conversion efficiency and parametric gains of 12dB – 27dB.
Ju Won Choi, Byoung-Uk Sohn, George F. R. Chen, Doris K. T. Ng, and Dawn T. H. Tan, "Broadband four-wave mixing and optical parametric gain of broadband incoherent light using ultra-silicon-rich nitride waveguides (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10684, Nonlinear Optics and its Applications 2018, 106840X (Presented at SPIE Photonics Europe: April 25, 2018; Published: 23 May 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2306075.5788853945001.
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