Immune diseases are associated with the activity of cellular and humoral immunity. The humoral (molecular) immunity plays the role in mechanisms of immunological tolerance and pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancerous. The opportunities as well as the challenges facing the humoral immunity analysis are formidable. The study of molecular composition and functionality of humoral immunity is capable to reveal effective strategies for early diagnosis and treatment. The optical techniques were selected for this research due to the noninvasiveness and simplicity of in vivo imaging, allowing real-time observations of the immune activation process. The laser correlation spectroscopic technique allows one to determine sizes of nanoparticles, in particular molecules and molecular agglomerates. In this work, the original scheme of the device based on laser correlation spectroscopic technique is suggested. In the presented work, the molecular compounds were investigated in blood serum. We measured the size distribution of protein molecules in blood of several donors. We observed both single proteins and the protein agglomerates demonstrating normal course of metabolic process in an organism. Then we initiated the immune reactions by the addition of the vaccines to the blood serum. After that, the noticeable aggregation of proteins was observed. To separate specific and nonspecific immune reactions a blood serum with inactivated complement system was also studied. It showed a significantly different outcome. So the laser correlation spectroscopic technique can be successfully used for analysis of the immune activation processes and further diagnostics.
Elina Nepomnyashchaya, Elena Velichko, Evgenij Aksenov, and Tatyana Bogomaz, "Laser correlation spectroscopy as a powerful tool to study immune responses," Proc. SPIE 10685, Biophotonics: Photonic Solutions for Better Health Care VI, 106852F (Presented at SPIE Photonics Europe: April 26, 2018; Published: 17 May 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2307241.
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