With the fast growing demand of data, current chip-scale communication systems based on electrical links suffer rate limitations and high power consumptions to address these new requirements. In this context, Silicon Photonics has proven to be a viable alternative by replacing electronic links with optical ones while taking advantage of the well-established CMOS foundries techniques to reduce fabrication costs. However, silicon, in spite of being an excellent material to guide light, its centrosymmetry prevents second order nonlinear effects to exist, such as Pockels effect an electro-optic effect extensively used in high speed and low power consumption data transmission. Nevertheless, straining silicon by means of stressed thin films allows breaking the crystal symmetry and eventually enhancing Pockels effect. However the semiconductor nature of silicon makes the analysis of Pockels effect a challenging task because free carriers have a direct impact, through plasma dispersion effect, on its efficiency, which in turn complicates the estimation of the second order susceptibility necessary for further optimizations. However, this analysis is more relaxed working in high-speed regime because of the frequency limitation of free carriers-based modulation.
In this work, we report experimental results on the modulation characteristics based on Mach-Zehnder interferometers strained by silicon nitride. We demonstrated high speed Pockels-based optical modulation up to 25 GHz in the C-band.
Mathias Berciano, Guillaume Marcaud, Xavier Le Roux, Paul Crozat, Carlos Alonso-Ramos, Daniel Benedikovic, Delphine Marris-Morini, Eric Cassan, Pedro Damas, and Laurent Vivien, "High-speed characteristics of strain-induced pockels effect in silicon (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10686, Silicon Photonics: From Fundamental Research to Manufacturing, 1068607 (Presented at SPIE Photonics Europe: April 23, 2018; Published: 23 May 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2307461.5788752201001.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon