Many technologically important properties of materials such as the optical diode effect depend on the interplay between the concepts of reciprocity, chirality and broken spatial and temporal symmetries. We illustrate these notions through a number of examples including non-reciprocal directional dichroism. Specifically, we discuss the conditions for non-reciprocity of ferro-rotational order in several materials and indicate the use of linear optical gyration and possibly vortex beams as a likely way to detect ferro-rotational domains. The concept of vector order parameters is then generalized to second- and higher-rank tensor order parameters. Finally, we elucidate how to achieve high-temperature optical diode effect. This work was performed in collaboration with S.-W. Cheong (Rutgers Univ.), D. Talbayev (Tulane Univ) and V. Kiryukhin (Rurgers Univ.).
Avadh Saxena, "Non-reciprocity and broken symmetry in photonics: implications for materials (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10721, Active Photonic Platforms X, 107210U (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 21, 2018; Published: 17 September 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2321289.5836023487001.
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