The development of active photonic devices with quantum dots (QDs) as active media in the visible wavelength range promises a large improvement in a wide variety of areas from biochemical sensing to quantum computing. Novel active photonic devices including nanolasers and light emitting diodes have been demonstrated over the last years, but are primarily limited to research laboratories owing to the expensive and complex fabrication of nanoscale features with high fidelity and precision. In particular, active photonic devices which operate in the visible region impose additional challenges as the dimensions of the features are smaller or around λ/4n (λ, wavelength, n, the refractive index). At these length scales, standard nanofabrication methods such as photolithography, e-beam lithography, and molecular beam epitaxy are either prohibitively expensive, very slow or not compatible with optically active materials. Some processes require dry etching steps with plasma exposure or operating at elevated temperature, which can easily be detrimental to preserving the optical properties of active materials. Solving these issues will be the key to developing a new path towards a high throughput and large scale manufacturing of active nanophotonic devices. Here we report a dramatically simplified method to fabricate passive and active photonic devices in the visible region by direct nanoimprinting of high-refractive index materials integrated with colloidal quantum dots, demonstrated on active one (1-D) and two (2-D) dimensional photonic crystals. The direct patterning of functional materials, while preserving the properties of the active materials, represents a robust and practical solution to fabricate active photonic devices. It is a powerful strategy as it enables to fabricate photonic devices in a single step processing with the ability to tailor specific properties (e.g. emission wavelength) of a device starting at the molecular level.
Active media colloidal CdSe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) QDs were applied in two different ways: embedded inside a printable high-refractive index matrix to form an active printable hybrid nanocomposite, and used as a uniform coating on top of printed photonic devices. As a proof of demonstration for printed active photonic devices, two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals as well as 1D and 2D photonic nano-cavities were successfully fabricated following a simple reverse-nanoimprint process. We observed enhanced photoluminescence from the 2D photonic crystal and the 1D nano-cavities. The process presented in this study is fully compatible with large-scale manufacturing where the patterning areas are only limited by the size of the corresponding mold. This work shows that the integration of active media and functional materials is a promising approach to the realization of integrated photonics for visible light using high throughput technologies. We believe that this work represents a powerful and cost-effective route for the development of numerous nanophotonic structures and devices that will lead to the emergence of new applications.
Stefano Cabrini, Carlos Pina-Hernandez, Alexander Koshelev, Keiko Munechika, Michela Sainato, and Scott D. Dhuey, "High-refractive index materials for fabrication of photonic nanostructures (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10731, Nanostructured Thin Films XI, 1073103 (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 22, 2018; Published: 18 September 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2322890.5836437647001.
Conference Presentations are recordings of oral presentations given at SPIE conferences and published as part of the proceedings. They include the speaker's narration with video of the slides and animations. Most include full-text papers. Interactive, searchable transcripts and closed captioning are now available for most presentations.
Search our growing collection of more than 18,000 conference presentations, including many plenaries and keynotes.