One of the very useful aspects of a laser is its well-defined beam, delivering high intensity to a defined location. Directing that beam and specifying the location is generally done with adjustable mirrors. Directing the beam in time varying manner most often requires galvanometer scanning mirrors which translate in one dimension. These mirrors, though now a mature technology, are in general speed limited due to their inertia and can be heavy, power hungry and expensive. There are then benefits to be gained from non-mechanical means of beam steering particularly in terms of speed and weight. This paper gives an overview of methods employed to implement beam steering and then concentrates on methods that do not rely on independent phase control. The use of a micromirror array for 3-dimensional beam control will be presented with the pros and cons that this entails.
David M. Benton, "Non-mechanical beam steering: ways and means," Proc. SPIE 10797, Technologies for Optical Countermeasures XV, 107970H (Presented at SPIE Security + Defence: September 11, 2018; Published: 9 October 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2502758.
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