Piezoelectric thin films are of increasing interest in low voltage microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for sensing, actuation, and energy harvesting. The key figures of merit for actuators and energy harvesting will be discussed, with emphasis on how to achieve these on practical substrates. For example, control of the domain structure of the ferroelectric material allows the energy harvesting figure of merit for the piezoelectric layer to be increased by factors of 4 – 10. To illustrate the functionality of these films, examples of integration into MEMS structures will also be discussed, including adjustable optics for x-ray telescopes, low frequency, and non-resonant piezoelectric energy harvesting devices, and miniaturized ultrasound transducer arrays.
Susan Trolier-McKinstry, "Piezoelectric films for MEMS applications (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10967, Active and Passive Smart Structures and Integrated Systems XIII, 1096702 (Presented at SPIE Smart Structures + Nondestructive Evaluation: March 05, 2019; Published: 29 March 2019); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2507279.6020103271001.
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