van der Waals (vdW) crystals consist of individual atomic planes coupled by vdW interaction, similar to graphene monolayers in bulk graphite. We investigated van der Waals heterostructures assembled from atomically thin layers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). We launched, detected and imaged plasmonic, phonon polaritonic and hybrid plasmon-phonon polariton waves in a setting of an antenna based nano-infrared apparatus. Hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN enabled sub-diffractional focusing in infrared frequencies. Because electronic, plasmonic and phonon polaritonic properties in van der Waals heterstructures are intertwined, gate voltage and/or details of layer assembly enable efficient control of nano-photonic effects.
Dmitri N. Basov, "Nano-photonic phenomena in van der Waals heterostructures (Presentation Recording)," Proc. SPIE 9544, Metamaterials, Metadevices, and Metasystems 2015, 95440X (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 10, 2015; Published: 5 October 2015); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2189749.4519316141001.
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