To study the light-matter interaction between plasmonic systems and gain media, numerous theoretical and numerical methods have been proposed. Among them, because of its accurate treatment of the quantum property of gain media, the time domain (TD) multi-physics approach is viewed as the most powerful method, especially for analysis of transient dynamics. Even though the finite difference, finite-volume and finite element TD methods can be readily coupled to a multi-level atomic system through auxiliary differential equations, for each of them however there is limited information on accurate TD kinetic parameters fitted with experimental measurements. In this work, we develop a multi-physics time domain model to inspect our most recent lasing experiment with a silver nanohole array. We use a classical finite difference time-domain (FDTD) model coupled to the rate equations of a 4-level gain system. To retrieve kinetic energy parameters for accurate modeling, we first fit 1-D simulations with pump-probe experiments studying Rhodamine-101 (R-101) dye embedded in epoxy on an indium tin oxide silica substrate. The retrieved parameters are then fed into a 3-D model to study the lasing behavior of the R-101-coated nanohole array. The simulated emission intensity shows a clear lasing effect, which is in good agreement with the experimental measurements. By tracing the population inversion and polarization dynamics, the amplification and lasing regimes inside the nanohole cavity can be clearly distinguished. With the help of our systematic approach, we can further improve understanding of the time-resolved physics of active plasmonic nanostructures with gain.
Jieran Fang, Jingjing Liu, Zhuoxian Wang, Xiangeng Meng, Ludmila J. Prokopeva, Vladimir M. Shalaev, and Alexander V. Kildishev, "Time-resolved lasing dynamics for plasmonic system with gain (Presentation Recording)," Proc. SPIE 9546, Active Photonic Materials VII, 95460Y (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 11, 2015; Published: 5 October 2015); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2188474.4519370257001.
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