Nanosphere lithography (NSL) uses self-assembled layers of monodisperse micro-/nano-spheres as masks to fabricate
plasmonic metal nanoparticles. Different variants of NSL have been proposed with the combination with dry etching
and/or angled-deposition. These techniques have employed to fabricate a wide variety of plasmonic nanoparticles or
nanostructures. Here we report another promising extension - moiré nanosphere lithography (MNSL), which
incorporates in-plane twisting between neighboring monolayers, to extend the patterning capability of conventional
NSL. In conventional NSL, the masks, either a monolayer or bilayer, are formed by spontaneous self-assembly.
Therefore, the resulted colloidal crystal configurations are limited. In this work we used sequential stacking of
polystyrene nanosphere monolayers to form a bilayer crystal at the air/water interfaces. During this layer-by-layer
stacking process, a crystal domain in the top layer gains the freedom to positon itself in a relative angle to that in the
bottom layer allowing for the formation of moiré patterns. Subsequent O2 plasma etching results in a variety of complex
nanostructures that have not been reported before. Using etched moiré patterns as masks, we further fabricated the
corresponding gold nanostructures and characterized their scattering optical properties. We believe this facile technique
provides a new strategy to fabricate novel and complex plasmonic nanostructures or metasurfaces.
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