Toroidal dipole moments, the third kind of fundamental dipole moment, have unusual electromagnetic properties
different from the electric and magnetic multipoles. We fabricate a new type of 3D plasmonic toroidal metamaterial by
using mutual coupling between dumbbell-shaped gold apertures with vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs) at optical
frequency. The radiated power of multipole moments are calculated and analyzed to improve the meta-system is
dominated by the toroidal dipole moment. This result paves a way for practical application on metamaterial based
devices, such as biosensor and lasing spaser.
Chun Yen Liao, Mu Ku Chen, Yao-Wei Huang, Wei Ting Chen, Pin Chieh Wu, Wei-Yi Tsai, Hao Tsun Lin, Yi-Teng Huang, Ting-Yu Chen, Jia-Wern Chen, Vassili Savinov, Nikolay I. Zheludev, and Din Ping Tsai, "Optical toroidal response in three-dimensional plasmonic metamaterial," Proc. SPIE 9547, Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties XIII, 954724 (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 13, 2015; Published: 28 August 2015); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2189052.
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