Resonant waveguide grating (RWG) systems illuminate an array of diffractive nanograting waveguide structures in microtiter plate to establish evanescent wave for measuring tiny changes in local refractive index arising from the dynamic mass redistribution of living cells upon stimulation. Whole-plate RWG imager enables high-throughput profiling and screening of drugs. Microfluidics RWG imager not only manifests distinct receptor signaling waves, but also differentiates long-acting agonism and antagonism. Spatially resolved RWG imager allows for single cell analysis including receptor signaling heterogeneity and the invasion of cancer cells in a spheroidal structure through 3-dimensional extracellular matrix. High frequency RWG imager permits real-time detection of drug-induced cardiotoxicity. The wide coverage in target, pathway, assay, and cell phenotype has made RWG systems powerful tool in both basic research and early drug discovery process.
Ye Fang, "Resonant waveguide grating imagers for single cell analysis and high throughput screening," Proc. SPIE 9550, Biosensing and Nanomedicine VIII, 95500P (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 11, 2015; Published: 21 August 2015); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2190287.
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