We demonstrate the operation of a graphene-passivated on-chip porous silicon material as a high rate lithium ion battery anode with over 50x power density and 100x energy density improvement compared to identically prepared on-chip porous silicon supercapacitors. We demonstrate this Faradaic storage behavior to occur at fast charging rates (1-10 mA/cm2) where lithium locally intercalates into the nanoporous silicon, but not underlying bulk silicon material. This prevents the degradation and poor cycling performance that is commonly observed from deep storage in bulk silicon materials. As a result, this device exhibits cycling performance that exceeds 10,000 cycles with capacity above 0.1 mAh/cm2, without notable capacity fade. This work demonstrates a practical route toward high power, high energy, and long lifetime all-silicon on-chip storage systems relevant toward integration of energy storage into electronics, photovoltaics, and other silicon-based technology.
Andrew S. Westover, Daniel Freudiger, Zarif Gani, Keith Share, Landon Oakes, Rachel E. Carter, and Cary L. Pint, "On-chip high-power porous silicon lithium ion batteries with stable capacity over 10000 cycles (Presentation Recording)," Proc. SPIE 9552, Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Emerging 2D Materials for Electronic and Photonic Devices VIII, 95520E (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 10, 2015; Published: 5 October 2015); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2191668.4519371070001.
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