Inorganic, low bandgap semiconductors such as Bi2Te3 have adequate efficiency for some thermoelectric energy conversion applications, but have not been more widely adopted because they are difficult to deposit over complex and/or high surface area structures, are not eco-friendly, and are too expensive. As an alternative, conducting polymers have recently attracted much attention for thermoelectric applications motivated by their low material cost, ease of processability, non-toxicity, and low thermal conductivity. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are extended, crystalline compounds consisting of metal ions interconnected by organic ligands, share many of the advantages of all-organic polymers including solution processability and low thermal conductivity. Additionally, MOFs and Guest@MOF materials offer higher thermal stability (up to ~300 °C in some cases) and have long-range crystalline order which should improve charge mobility. A potential advantage of MOFs and Guest@MOF materials over all-organic polymers is the opportunity for tuning the electronic structure through appropriate choice of metal and ligand, which could solve the long-standing challenge of finding stable, high ZT n-type organic semiconductors. In our presentation, we report on thermoelectric measurements of electrically conducting TCNQ@Cu3(BTC)2 thin films deposited using a room-temperature, solution-based method, which reveal a large, positive Seebeck coefficient. Furthermore, we use time-dependent thermoreflectance (TDTR) to measure the thermal conductivity of the films, which is found to have a low value due to the presence of disorder, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to establishing the thermoelectric figure of merit, the thermoelectric measurements reveal for the first time that holes are the majority carriers in TCNQ@Cu3(BTC)2.
Kristopher J. Erickson, Francois Leonard, Vitalie N. Stavila, Michael E. Foster, Catalin D. Spataru, Reese Jones, Brian Foley, Patrick Hopkins, Mark D. Allendorf, and A. Alec Talin, "Thin film thermoelectric metal-organic framework with high Seebeck coefficient and low thermal conductivity (Presentation Recording)," Proc. SPIE 9553, Low-Dimensional Materials and Devices, 955315 (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 13, 2015; Published: 5 October 2015); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2190360.4519371104001.
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