In spite of many efforts for early detection of breast cancer, there is still lack of technology for immediate
implementation. In the present study, the potential photoacoustic spectroscopy was evaluated in discriminating breast
cancer from normal, involving blood serum samples seeking early detection. Three photoacoustic spectra in time domain
were recorded from each of 20 normal and 20 malignant samples at 281nm pulsed laser excitations and a total of 120
spectra were generated. The time domain spectra were then Fast Fourier Transformed into frequency domain and
116.5625 - 206.875 kHz region was selected for further analysis using a combinational approach of wavelet, PCA and
logistic regression. Initially, wavelet analysis was performed on the FFT data and seven features (mean, median, area
under the curve, variance, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis) from each were extracted. PCA was then
performed on the feature matrix (7x120) for discriminating malignant samples from the normal by plotting a decision
boundary using logistic regression analysis. The unsupervised mode of classification used in the present study yielded
specificity and sensitivity values of 100% in each respectively with a ROC - AUC value of 1. The results obtained have
clearly demonstrated the capability of photoacoustic spectroscopy in discriminating cancer from the normal, suggesting
its possible clinical implications.
Mallika Priya, Bola Sadashiva Satish Rao, Subhash Chandra, Satadru Ray, Stanley Mathew, Anirbit Datta, Subramanya G. Nayak, and Krishna Kishore Mahato, "Photoacoustic spectroscopy based investigatory approach to discriminate breast cancer from normal: a pilot study," Proc. SPIE 9689, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XII, 968943 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 14, 2016; Published: 29 February 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2210900.
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