Myelination is governed by axon-glia interaction which is modulated by neural activity. Currently, the effects of subcellular activation of neurons which induce neural activity upon myelination are not well understood. To identify if subcellular neuronal stimulation can enhance myelination, we developed a novel system for focal stimulation of neural activity with optogenetic in a compartmentalized microfluidic platform. In our systems, stimulation for neurons in restricted subcellular parts, such as cell bodies and axons promoted oligodendrocyte differentiation and the myelination of axons the just as much as whole cell activation of neurons did. The number of premature O4 positive oligodendrocytes was reduced and the numbers of mature and myelin basic protein-positive oligodendrocytes was increased both by subcellular optogenetic stimulation.
In Hong Yang, Hae Ung Lee, and Nitish V. Thakor, "Optogenetic stimulation of myelination
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9690, Clinical and Translational Neurophotonics; Neural Imaging and Sensing; and Optogenetics and Optical Manipulation, 96902A (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 13, 2016; Published: 26 April 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2212607.4848636584001.
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