In vivo photoreceptor imaging has enhanced the way vision scientists and ophthalmologists understand the retinal structure, function, and etiology of numerous retinal pathologies. However, the complexity and large footprint of current systems capable of resolving photoreceptors has limited imaging to patients who are able to sit in an upright position and fixate for several minutes. Unfortunately, this excludes an important fraction of patients including bedridden patients, small children, and infants. Here, we show that our dual-modality, high-resolution handheld probe with a weight of only 94 g is capable of visualizing photoreceptors in supine children. Our device utilizes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner and a novel telescope design to achieve over an order of magnitude reduction in size compared to similar systems. The probe has a 7° field of view and a lateral resolution of 8 µm. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has an axial resolution of 7 µm and a sensitivity of 101 dB. High definition scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and OCT images were acquired from children ranging from 14 months to 12 years of age with and without pathology during examination under anesthesia in the operating room. Parafoveal cone imaging was shown using the SLO arm of this device without adaptive optics using a 3° FOV for the first time in children under 4 years old. This work lays the foundation for pediatric research, which will improve understanding of retinal development, maldevelopment and early onset of diseases at the cellular level during the beginning stages of human growth.
Francesco LaRocca, Derek Nankivil, Theodore B. DuBose, Cynthia A. Toth, Sina Farsiu, and Joseph A. Izatt, "Parafoveal retinal cone mosaic imaging in children with ultra-compact switchable SLO/OCT handheld probe
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9693, Ophthalmic Technologies XXVI, 96931I (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 15, 2016; Published: 26 April 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2212869.4848636532001.
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