In this paper we proposed a portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system to prevent iatrogenic biliary injuries from occurring during cholecystectomy due to misidentification of the cystic structures. The system consisted of a light source module, a CMOS camera, a Raspberry Pi computer and a 5 inch HDMI LCD. Specifically, the light source module was composed of 690 nm and 850 nm LEDs, allowing the CMOS camera to simultaneously acquire both fluorescence and background images. The system was controlled by Raspberry Pi using Python programming with the OpenCV library under Linux. We chose Indocyanine green(ICG) as a fluorescent contrast agent and then tested fluorescence intensities of the ICG aqueous solution at different concentration levels by our fluorescence microscopic system compared with the commercial Xenogen IVIS system. The spatial resolution of the proposed fluorescence microscopic imaging system was measured by a 1951 USAF resolution target and the dynamic response was evaluated quantitatively with an automatic displacement platform. Finally, we verified the technical feasibility of the proposed system in mouse models of bile duct, performing both correct and incorrect gallbladder resection. Our experiments showed that the proposed system can provide clear visualization of the confluence between the cystic duct and common bile duct or common hepatic duct, suggesting that this is a potential method for guiding cholecystectomy. The proposed portable system only cost a total of $300, potentially promoting its use in resource-limited settings.
Jian Ye, Chaoyu Yang, Qi Gan, Rong Ma, Zeshu Zhang, Shufang Chang, Pengfei Shao, Shiwu Zhang, Chenhai Liu, and Ronald Xu, "A portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system for cholecystectomy," Proc. SPIE 9696, Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications II, 96960M (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 14, 2016; Published: 4 March 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2212271.
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