The lack of capability to quantify oxygen metabolism noninvasively impedes both fundamental investigation and clinical diagnosis of a wide spectrum of diseases including all the major blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Using visible light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT), we demonstrated accurate and robust measurement of retinal oxygen metabolic rate (rMRO2) noninvasively in rat eyes. The rMRO2 was calculated by concurrent measurement of blood flow and blood oxygen saturation (sO2). Blood flow was calculated by the principle of Doppler optical coherence tomography, where the phase shift between two closely spaced A-lines measures the axial velocity. The distinct optical absorption spectra of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin provided the contrast for sO2 measurement, combined with the spectroscopic analysis of vis-OCT signal within the blood vessels. We continuously monitored the regulatory response of oxygen consumption to a progressive hypoxic challenge. We found that both oxygen delivery, and rMRO2 increased from the highly regulated retinal circulation (RC) under hypoxia, by 0.28±0.08 μL/min (p<0.001), and 0.20±0.04 μL/min (p<0.001) per 100 mmHg systemic pO2 reduction, respectively. The increased oxygen extraction compensated for the deficient oxygen supply from the poorly regulated choroidal circulation (CC).
Ji Yi, Wenzhong Liu, Siyu Chen, Vadim Backman, Nader Sheibani, Christine M. Sorenson, Amani A. Fawzi, Robert A. Linsenmeier, and Hao F. Zhang, "Visible light optical coherence tomography measure retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation
(Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 9697, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XX, 96970I (Presented at SPIE BiOS: February 15, 2016; Published: 26 April 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2214803.4848328234001.
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